blood sugar levels - Feature

Normal Blood Sugar Levels in Men, Women and Children

Normal Blood Sugar Levels in Men, Women, and Children: Glucose, or in the common “sugar,” it is considered to be material for the energy system of the body, which ensures efficient operation of all the organs/tissues. The concentration of carbohydrate component in the blood is directly related your quality of life, health, immunity and susceptibility to some diseases.

The level of blood sugar Levels in a healthy person

Reliably determine current glucose levels can only research laboratory methods, of which the base is a text on glycemia determined by analysis of blood samples. It is mandatory to take into account while making food to blood collection, a person’s age and other factors – in particular, the use of diets or drugs that can distort the results of the analysis.

Normal blood sugar levels in women

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Standards of glucose in the blood of women, depending on age, considered the following indicators:

  • From 18 – 30 years old – 3, 8-5,8 mmol / l.
  • From 39 – 60 years old – glucose ranging from 4.1 to 5.9 mmol / l.
  • From 60 – 90 years old – 4, 6-6,4 mmol / l.
  • Over 90 years – from 4.2 to 6.7 mmol / l.

Significant results of the analyses of the first check you get only under certain conditions:

  • Before delivery of blood sugar is necessary to renounce the use of medications that alter glucose levels. 
  • Analyses shall be on an empty stomach, in the period from 8 to 11 am. In front of them is necessary to refuse the use of food for 8-12 hours. One day before the analysis to avoid severe food overload. Drinking regime (ordinary water) – standard.
  • For 10 hours before delivery of analyses give up the physical and psychological stress, including stress.

Normal blood sugar levels in men

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Standards blood sugar levels in men and women are identical, only depend on the age and not from the floor. The only thing that should be considered – a great physical activity for boys, which could affect the test results in the direction of decreasing values. However, if you stick to the rules described above – you will be able to determine the level of glucose in the blood accurately.

The blood sugar levels in a child

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In children, depending on the age, the following parameters are considered normal

  • From two days to a month – 2, 8-4, four mmol / l.
  • From month to 14 years – 3, 3-5, 6 mmol / l.
  • From 14 to 18 years old – 4-5, seven mmol / l.

The level of sugar in diabetes

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Doctors put preliminary diagnosis “diabetes” in the following cases:

  • The standard of glucose in the blood donated fasting overcomes the higher limit of normal for these ages. When this result should be obtained, at least twice.
  • A few hours after a meal or on the results of the analysis at an arbitrary time of the day, the level of sugar in the blood exceeds the mark of eleven mmol / l.

If a suspicion of diabetes, the endocrinologist, will direct you to the change of related tests:

  • Repeated blood donation.
  • Checking glucose tolerance.
  • The test for the percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin.

If the tests mentioned above indicate respectively:

  • Excess levels above 6.1 mmol / l
  • Excess levels above 11 mmol / l
  • Index above 5.7 percent
  • The diagnosis is confirmed.

Analysis of blood sugar levels

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To determine the current blood glucose produce sampling capillary or venous blood. In the first case, the material is taken from the finger, in the second, respectively, from the vein (in this case, the norm for the venous blood of 12 percent above the standard). As mentioned above, under the conditions of analysis (the temporary abandonment of the use of drugs, giving blood on an empty stomach), considered to be the norm in the average values ranging from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / L.

Test Methodology

  • Ortotolidina method – determination of pure glucose in the blood, without consideration of reducing substances. It is the primary diagnosis and shows the total deviation from the norm. Based on the test results, the doctor may refer the patient to an additional diagnosis.
  • Reducing method. At the current level of blood sugar levels test determines the concentration of creatinine arginine, uric acid and other components which can induce an increase in the overall performance of the blood glucose level. It is intended to clarify the diagnosis and identification of related problems – such as diabetic nephropathy.
  • Load method. It is used in a hospital, uses a dual system of calculation – Ortotolidina first method, after which the body of the patient is administered a dose of glucose dissolved in the liquid (75 grams). At the end of two hours produces glucose measurement. If the load threshold of 11 mmol / l is exceeded, the patient is diagnosed hyperglycemia – a primary symptom of diabetes.

What does high blood sugar levels?

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Double confirmed a high level of glucose in the blood – is hyperglycemia. This term refers to the primary symptoms of possible diabetes or series with body issues. The chronic form is almost always a sign of diabetes; occasional surges raise the blood glucose level may indicate a predisposition to the disease or illness of some organs.

The primary forms of the severity of symptoms

  • Easy – rising to 8 mmol / l.
  • Average – increase blood glucose to 11 mmol / l. It is a pre-diabetic condition.
  • Heavy – exceeding the threshold of 11-12 mmol / l. Diabetes.
  • Crisis – at rates of more than 16 and more than 55 mmol / l diagnosed precoma gophers molar and coma, respectively. The risk of death increases exponentially.

The reasons for rising

  • Diseases of the endocrine spectrum.
  • Problems with the kidneys, liver or pancreas.
  • Acceptance of some medications – diuretics, steroids, antitumor agents, as well as birth control pills.
  • Diabetes type 1 diabetes or type 2.
  • Premenstrual syndrome.
  • Bad habits (alcohol and tobacco).
  • Severe stress.
  • Unbalanced diet and obesity due to excessive consumption of food.

External symptoms of high blood sugar levels?

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Usually, in patients with elevated glucose levels are observed:

  • Frequent urination with little pain.
  • A strong sense of thirst and dryness in the mouth.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Fatigue and ragged breathing.
  • Skin rashes and itching.
  • Sudden changes in body weight.
  • Arrhythmias full range.
  • Poor wound healing.
  • When exceeding the critical parameters in blood glucose levels (above 16 mmol / l) often, patients suffer from severe dehydration, impaired consciousness, and ketoacidosis.

What does low blood sugar levels?

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Lowered blood sugar – hypoglycemia is. Typically develops in patients with a blood glucose concentration below 3.5 mmol / l for an extended period. The corresponding syndrome is formed in the case of chronic hypoglycemia. The primary of this process is considered to decrease glucose into the blood or else increased its clearance due to hyperinsulinism exogenous/endogenous nature.

Main stage

  • Easy – a drop of 3 to 2.5 mmol / L. It appears malaise.
  • Average. Drop to 1 mmol / l. It seems beside pathogenic conditions; often the patient requires transfer to the hospital and outside help.
  • Heavy. Glucose drops below one mmol / l. Urgent hospitalization and emergency care, high risk of loss of consciousness, and hypoglycemic coma.

Causes

  • Severe dehydration.
  • Insufficient and untimely supply.
  • High and unusual exercise.
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • The lack of cortisol, adrenaline, glucagon.
  • Tumors and congenital autoimmune spectrum.
  • An overdose of antidiabetic drugs and insulin.
  • Frequent administration of saline droplets.
  • Long-term chronic diseases of a broad range.
  • Sepsis.
  • Renal, hepatic or cardiac insufficiency.
  • Physiological causes – the menstrual cycle and reduced glucose levels in the newborn.

Manifestations

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  • Parasympathetic range – weakness, nausea, hunger.
  • Adrenergic range – hypertension, arrhythmias, sweating, tremor, muscle hypertonicity, dilated pupils, pale skin, aggression, anxiety, and restlessness.
  • loss of coordination, disorientation in space, a significant reduction in performance, diplopia, paresthesia, neurological disorders broad spectrum of amnesia, malfunction of the respiratory system and blood circulation, fainting, and coma.
  • In the case of severe hypoglycemia, the patient requires the most rapid assistance (mild) – the use of simple carbohydrates is sucked directly into the oral cavity (D-glucose), glucagon intramuscularly, other measures aimed at increasing the level of sugar in the blood and stabilize the current condition of the patient.

 

Questions and answers

How to quickly reduce blood sugar levels?

Possible methods for rapidly and efficiently lessen the level of blood sugar:

  • Admission antidiabetic drugs (for the second type of diabetes) – glipizide, glimepiride, repaglinide, biguanides, acarbose or a glitazone.
  • Introduction insulin injections (for the first type of patients with diabetes).
  • Physical exercise and activity.
  • A strict diet or temporary waiver of food intake.

What is the maximum permitted level of blood sugar in diabetes?

If you are under the supervision of doctors who regularly take medications, conduct replacement therapy, are on a diet, in most cases, blood glucose levels should not exceed 7.4 mmol / l and depends on the age of the patient. Critical, it is considered a constant level of 11 mmol / l or periodic – more than 16-17 mmol / l. In this situation, a person has very significantly increased the likelihood of coma and an urgent need to reduce the concentration of sugar in the blood. Score more than 50 mmol / l is the reason for calling the emergency, especially if the classical methods to reduce glucose level does not give useful results.

Indicated by the level of sugar in the blood test?

The general analysis of blood there is no specific designation. When biochemical – GLU. When Ortotolidina method of research – “glucose” in Russian letters, full or abbreviated. Measured often in mmol / l.

What blood sugar levels in children is the norm?

In children up to one year are considered standard tests within 2.7-4.4 mmol / l. If your baby from one year to five years – 3,2-5,1 mmol / l. For adolescents from five to fourteen years – 3,3-5,6 mmol / l. The guys, older than 14 years, the rate is similar to the rules for adults.

How to regulate blood sugar levels?

Self-regulation of the glucose level is not allowed – in any case after the testing is necessary to address to the endocrinologist, who will develop for you an own scheme of therapy and diet depending on the identified diagnosis.

  • If hypoglycemic syndrome and a low level of glucose – the energy-balanced diet, systematization of circadian rhythms, the elimination of the negative factors affecting the fall in blood sugar levels, increased consumption of simple carbohydrates, in some cases, a glucagon injection and reception of D-glucose.
  • In diabetes type 1. Insulin injections, strict diet calculation for bread units adherence day assigned by your doctor and aimed at the compensation of carbohydrate metabolism.
  • In diabetes type 2. Admission hypoglycemic sulfonylurea drugs, benzoic acid derivatives, amino acids, D-phenylalanine, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Also, in most cases, the patient is prescribed a special diet. At last, completely eliminated or significantly limited the use of confectionery, fast food, animal fats, carbonated beverages, marinades, smoked meat, fried foods, muffins, persimmons, grapes, figs, dates, and diet includes greens, spinach, vegetables, beans, seafood with fish, whole wheat bread, non-carbonated mineral water, chicken/rabbit meat, and so on.
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